Bangalore ( / b æ ŋ ɡ ə ˈ l ɔː r / ), officially known as Bengaluru  ( [ˈbeŋɡəɭuːɾu] ( listen ) ), is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. It has a population of about 8.42 million and a metropolitan population of about 8.52 million , making it the third most populous city and fifth most populous urban agglomeration in India.  It is located in southern India on the Deccan Plateau. Its elevation is over 900 m (3,000 ft) above sea level, the highest of India's major cities. 
In 1809, the British shifted their cantonment to Bangalore, outside the old city, and a town grew up around it, which was governed as part of British India. Following India's independence in 1947, Bangalore became the capital of Mysore State , and remained capital when the new Indian state of Karnataka was formed in 1956. The two urban settlements of Bangalore – city and cantonment – which had developed as independent entities merged into a single urban centre in 1949. The existing Kannada name, Bengalūru , was declared the official name of the city in 2006.
A discovery of Stone Age artefacts during the 2001 census of India at Jalahalli , Sidhapura and Jadigenahalli, all of which are located on Bangalore's outskirts today, suggest probable human settlement around 4,000 BCE.  Around 1,000 BCE ( Iron Age ), burial grounds were established at Koramangala and Chikkajala on the outskirts of Bangalore. Coins of the Roman emperors Augustus , Tiberius , and Claudius found at Yeswanthpur and HAL indicate that Bangalore was involved in trans-oceanic trade with ancient civilisations in 27 BCE.